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Cuando el alcohol se convierte en adicción

El consumo de alcohol se convierte en una adicción cuando genera problemas graves  a la persona que lo consume. No estamos hablando de alguien que bebe en exceso, sino de cuando el alcohol provoca graves problemas que pueden afectar a sus relaciones familiares y sociales, al rendimiento académico y/o profesional, generar alteraciones en su salud física y psicológica, y ocasionar problemas legales y/o económicos. La Dra. Helena Díaz, nuestra jefa de la Unidad de Salud Mental, explica que la persona con alcoholismo protagoniza un comportamiento disfuncional y una progresiva distancia afectiva de sus personas cercanas. «Construye una vida donde la prioridad es seguir bebiendo a pesar  de las consecuencias negativas que esto ocasiona».

Problemas con alcohol

Adicción al alcohol

Porque el alcohol es una droga, una sustancia psicoactiva que influye en nuestro funcionamiento cerebral. Tal y como comenta nuestra psiquiatra, su consumo pronunciado y prolongado es el que genera cambios neuroquímicos y neurofisiológicos que hacen que la persona presente una conducta repetitiva de búsqueda para conseguir sus efectos inmediatos, y con el tiempo evitar el malestar de no consumirlo. «A este efecto químico de la sustancia hay que sumar numerosos factores de riesgo para desarrollar una adicción, como cierta vulnerabilidad previa de la persona (factores genéticos, rasgos de personalidad), situaciones sociales y familiares complicadas, malestares psicológicos, permisividad del consumo…Esta multitud de factores facilitan que pueda aparecer una adicción al alcohol», detalla la Dra. Helena Díaz.

Pero la adicción al alcohol tiene una buena respuesta a tratamiento. Por eso, es muy importante que el paciente o el familiar consulten con su médico sobre aquello que le esta sucediendo y poder aclarar si estos síntomas tienen relación con el consumo excesivo de alcohol. En muchos casos la intervención inicial ira dirigida a que el paciente tome conciencia de su enfermedad y se convenza de la necesidad de hacer un tratamiento. «Cuando nos encontramos a un paciente con alcoholismo, es necesario que nuestro trato vaya enfocado hacia una persona que no reconoce, niega o que no se encuentra preparada para aceptar y afrontar su enfermedad. Es importante en estos momentos iniciales ofrecer una información correcta sobre qué es el alcoholismo, las consecuencias del consumo y las posibilidades de tratamiento».

Adicción al alcohol

Superar la adicción

Y es que el tratamiento de la adicción al alcohol debe tener un enfoque multidisciplinar, que integre las dimensiones biológica, psicológica y social que están afectadas en este trastorno. Así, se debe realizar un tratamiento que como objetivo general intente conseguir y mantener la abstinencia, prevenir las recaídas, reorganizar las relaciones sociofamiliares y tratar las consecuencias físicas y psicológicas del consumo. Para ello, se pueden  utilizar diversas estrategias farmacológicas: tratamientos disuasorios que generan una reacción aguda física desagradable si se consumen con alcohol, fármacos que reducen el deseo del consumo y la gratificación del beber, ansiolíticos, antidepresivos, antimpulsivos.

No nos podemos olvidar de que la intervención psicológica es uno de los componentes fundamentales del tratamiento. Se utilizan distintos procedimientos como son: la prevención de recaídas, entrenamiento en habilidades sociales y de afrontamiento, intervenciones motivacionales, técnicas de autocontrol. Estas intervenciones pueden realizarse de forma individual y grupal.

La Dra. Helena Díaz recalca que la adicción debe ser entendida como una enfermedad crónica y más que superarla, la meta de cualquier tipo de tratamiento es aceptar la abstinencia permanente. Cuando alguien ha padecido una dependencia del alcohol no puede retornar a un consumo moderado, cuando vuelva a beber se encontrara con las mismas dificultades ocasionadas por la pérdida de control sobre el consumo.

Contenido validado por la Dra. Helena Díaz, Jefe de Servicio de la Unidad de Salud Mental del Hospital de Torrejón



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