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Cuida tu corazón para empezar a correr

Antes de empezar a correr hay que ver cómo está el corazón. Nuestro jefe del Servicio de Cardiología, el Dr. Eduardo Alegría, es contundente: «para iniciar una práctica deportiva o para retomarla tras varios años, es aconsejable revisar el funcionamiento del corazón».

Si tienes más de 40 años es aconsejable llevar a cabo un estudio de la morfología y la función del corazón mediante un ecocardiograma-doppler (técnica inocua que utiliza ultrasonidos para obtener imágenes del corazón) y una prueba de esfuerzo o ergometría, que consiste en caminar en una cita rodante para poner a prueba la resistencia del corazón y así adecuar el entrenamiento a cada persona. «En algunos casos concretos, apunta nuestro cardiólogo, ampliamos estos estudios con técnicas más exhaustivas, como el ecocardiograma de estrés o el TAC de las arterias coronarias. Ambas son técnicas muy fiables para estudiar el correcto funcionamiento del corazón».

Carrera

La importancia del ejercicio físico

El ejercicio físico es una actividad saludable cuando se realiza en las condiciones adecuadas, con el equipamiento apropiado y adaptado al grado de entrenamiento. Es más, el corazón es un músculo que se beneficia enormemente de la actividad deportiva, especialmente del entrenamiento regular, de moderada intensidad. «Nuestro corazón se beneficia del entrenamiento regular, lo ideal es 4-5 días por semana, que comporte actividad por encima de los 20-30 minutos: caminar por encima de 45 minutos a buen paso, carrera suave 20-30 minutos, bicicleta 30-45 minutos, natación 30-45 minutos, baile 45 minutos, remo, elíptica, golf, montañismo…», especifica el Dr. Eduardo Alegría.
En muchas ocasiones la falta de tiempo es la excusa perfecta para no hacer deporte. Sin embargo, debemos ser constantes y buscar más las escaleras y menos el ascensor, hacer los recados andando, bajarnos antes del metro para poder caminar… en definitiva, incorporar actividad física a nuestro día a día.

deporte

Uno, dos y tres…

Para no llevarnos sorpresas, la actividad deportiva debe estar estructurada en tres partes: calentamiento, entrenamiento y enfriamiento. Se recomienda llevar a cabo ejercicios de estiramiento progresivos durante unos 10-15 minutos previos al entrenamiento. Al finalizar, también resulta muy importante reducir la actividad de forma paulatina y estirar la musculatura y las articulaciones que han trabajado. Junto a ello, siempre recomendamos hacer ejercicio evitando las horas siguientes a la comida, salvo que se realice una comida suave, así como hidratarse correctamente antes, durante y tras el ejercicio.

Para terminar, el Dr. Eduardo Alegría recuerda que en los pacientes que han sufrido una enfermedad cardiovascular hay que analizar las secuelas que han quedado en el corazón. En general, «trataremos de evitar esfuerzo extenuantes y muy exigentes. Además, el ejercicio físico debe ir acompañado de un estilo de vida adecuado: no fumar, tratar de mantener un peso adecuado, evitar un consumo excesivo de alcohol y de estimulantes (cafeína, taurina, ginseng)».

Contenido validado por el Dr. Eduardo Alegría, Jefe de Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón



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