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¿Por quéŽ dejar de fumar?

Que el tabaco es malo lo sabe todo el mundo, incluso los fumadores. Tiene efectos perjudiciales sobre todo el organismo, desde los estéticos, como el la coloración amarillenta de los dientes o de los dedos o la mayor cantidad de arrugas, hasta efectos nocivos tan graves como el cáncer, en distintas localizaciones (pulmón, laringe, lengua, vejiga); la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC); los efectos de bajo peso en los recién nacidos de madres fumadoras, el retraso en la maduración del sistema respiratorio en niños que viven expuestos al humo de tabaco, la agudización de la enfermedad asmática, entre otros.

No hay que esperar mucho tiempo para ver estos efectos. Tal y como nos comenta la Dra. Soledad Alonso, nuestra jefa del Servicio de Neumología, desde el primer consumo aparecen los efectos perjudiciales. «No existe la dosis mínima segura. Es decir, que desde el primer consumo el tabaco empieza a dañar el organismo y sus efectos aparecen antes o después en función de características individuales».

Dejar el tabaco

Efectos del tabaco

Pero todo esto parece que no anima a los fumadores a dejar de fumar. En la sociedad actual, la información sobre los peligros del tabaco es más que conocida, «el problema es que queramos o no asumirla», apunta nuestra neumóloga, quien añade que en la mayoría de las ocasiones como el efecto del tabaco es larvado y da la cara cuando las enfermedades están avanzadas, el fumador piensa falsamente que él es inmune: cosa que no es cierta.

Aunque no es muy común en España, el consumo de tabaco masticado o inhalado también presenta efectos dañinos para la salud. Indudablemente la cantidad de sustancias añadidas por la industria tabaquera hace que su consumo no sólo sea cada vez más adictivo, sino que se generen la cantidad de enfermedades. Como dicen las cajetillas de cigarrillos, el tabaco perjudica la salud, independientemente de su forma de consumo. Lo que varían son datos estadísticos de prevalencia de enfermedades causadas. «Pero no hay tabaco que no perjudique y no hay un consumo mínimo seguro», recalca nuestra neumóloga.

Para los que se animen a dejar de fumar, tienen que saber que la recuperación del gusto y el olfato aparece en las primeras semanas y suele ser lo primero que notan los fumadores. Progresivamente, va mejorando la piel, la coloración de dientes y dedos, la tos en aquellos fumadores que no tienen enfermedades asociadas.


Contenido validado por la Dra. Soledad Alonso, Jefa de Servicio de Neumología del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón

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