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Depresión, cuando el ánimo no acompaña

La depresión es una patología incluida dentro de los trastornos del ánimo y el ánimo se define como una actitud o disposición emocional que perdura un cierto tiempo y que tiñe todo nuestro mundo psíquico. «Es el color a través del cual percibimos nuestra realidad», detalla la Dra. Helena Díaz, nuestra jefa de la Unidad de Salud Mental, quien puntualiza que el ánimo tiende a la polaridad de forma no patológica con estados aumentados o disminuidos, que son los deprimidos. Cuando estos últimos producen un deterioro en la funcionalidad de la persona en sus distintas esferas, familiar, laboral, social, estamos ante una depresión o trastorno depresivo.

Causas

Pero no se conoce la causa del trastorno depresivo. Sí que se han descrito distintos factores asociados al desarrollo del cuadro. Entre los que la Dra. Helena Díaz destaca los siguientes:

  • La carga genética, con disregulación en la actividad neurotransmisora cerebral, que predispone a determinados individuos/familias a padecer estos cuadros.
  • Los médicos, pues existen enfermedades que pueden producir síntomas que se asemejan a los cuadros depresivos; por este motivo es necesario ante la sospecha de un trastorno depresivo realizar un estudio orgánico.
  • Por último factores de estrés vital, como son el consumo de alcohol/drogas, alteraciones en los ciclos de vigilia/sueño, conflictos vitales (de pareja, familiares, laborales, económicos…) que pueden precipitar la aparición del cuadro.

TAA

La Terapia Asisitida con Animales del Hospital de Torrejón reduce la medicación por depresión hasta en un 60%

Signos de alarma

Para poder reconocer la depresión, hay diez signos de alarma:

  1. Predominio de ánimo triste la mayor parte del día
  2. Irritabilidad
  3. Disminución en el interés por actividades o pérdida de capacidad de experimentar placer de actividades que habitualmente resultan placenteras
  4. Alteración en el apetito, con pérdida o aumento de peso
  5. Agitación o enlentecimiento psicomotriz
  6. Alteración del ritmo de sueño (insomnio o hipersomnia)
  7. Falta de energía vital
  8. Sentimientos de inutilidad o culpa excesivos o inapropiados
  9. Disminución en la capacidad de concentración
  10. Pensamientos recurrentes de muerte, incluso ideas de suicidio

Los cuadros más graves se pueden acompañar de síntomas psicóticos, como son delirios que generalmente son congruentes con el estado de ánimo: catastrofista, de ruina.

Así, ante cualquier síntoma, nuestra jefa de la Unidad de Salud Mental recomienda acudir a un profesional que pueda realizar una valoración del cuadro para poder llegar a un diagnostico de depresión y se inicie un tratamiento. En la actualidad, «una de las principales limitaciones es el infradiagnóstico, pues en muchas ocasiones los pacientes por desconocimiento, otras veces por miedo o vergüenza, no acuden a consultar para que hablemos de  lo que le está pasando», asegura nuestra psiquiatra.

Tratamiento

En cuanto al tratamiento, está el farmacológico, donde se dispone de distintos grupos de antidepresivos (ISRS, Duales, Tricíclicos, IMAOs,…) que mediante la modulación de neurotransmisores generan mejoría en los síntomas depresivos y el psicológico, que mejora la comprensión del cuadro, de los síntomas, y del afrontamiento necesario para poder superar los estresores vitales que han podido contribuir a su desarrollo.

Contenido validado por la Dra. Helena Díaz, Jefa de Servicio de la Unidad de Salud Mental del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón



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