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Sífilis, VIH, Verrugas Genitales… ¿sabes cuáles son las ETS más frecuentes

Las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) son todas aquellas infecciones que se transmiten principalmente a través del contacto sexual, de persona a persona, fundamentalmente durante las relaciones sexuales, genitales, anales y orales, tal y como explica nuestra dermatóloga la Dra. Marta Ruano, quien añade que algunas también son transmitidas de madre a hijo, la transmisión vertical, durante la gestación, el parto, o la lactancia, y/o a través del contacto sanguíneo.

Desde mediados de la década de los noventa, la Unión Europea está experimentando un aumento significativo y mantenido de las ETS, especialmente de las bacterianas agudas, con incrementos centrados en la población joven, inmigrantes y homosexuales.


Incremento de las ETS

En España la vigilancia epidemiológica de las ETS se realiza semanalmente y por comunidades autónomas a través del sistema de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (EDO), con una cobertura estimada del 50% de los casos que se diagnostican. Así, los datos aportados en los últimos años muestran, aunque con cierto retraso respecto a otros países de la UE, un claro incremento en las tasas de incidencia de las ETS declarables, sobre todo de la sífilis, con un repunte desde el año 2003. Así, entre las más frecuentes están las verrugas genitales o condilomas y el molluscum contagioso, que se dan sobre todo en personas con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y 40 años; el herpes genital y la uretritis/cervicitis/proctitis, entre los 30 y los 60 años y las úlceras genitales, como la sífilis, entre los 30 y 50 años.

El 70% de los pacientes que se atienden en el hospital tienen entre 20 y 40 años, con una edad media de 32,6, «donde lo que más vemos es un joven varón de 20 a 40 años con condilomas. A medida que avanza la edad, las enfermedades más comunes son las sífilis y uretritis», apunta nuestra dermatóloga.

En cuanto al tratamiento, la Dra. Marta Ruano comenta que depende de cada enfermedad. Así, para los condilomas y molluscum se emplean cremas inmunomoduladoras y tratamientos ablativos, para la sífilis y uretritis, antibioterapia oral o imunomoduladores y para el herpes genital, antivirales.

No obstante, la prevención tiene un papel muy importante y esta se debe centrar en:

  • Educación sanitaria en colegios e institutos.
  • Campañas publicitarias en medios audiovisuales.
  • Fomentar el uso del preservativo.
  • Cartelería en los centros de salud.
  • Colaboración de varios especialistas, como dermatología, urología, ginecología y medicina preventiva
Contenido validado por la Dra. Marta Ruano, dermatóloga del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón


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