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Hiperactividad, algo más que un niño inquieto

Ante el TDAH, trastorno de déficit de atención por hiperactividad, surgen varias dudas. Lo primero que tenemos que tener en cuenta que el diagnóstico de TDAH debe ser realizado por un especialista. Durante la evaluación clínica en la consulta, se entrevistará tanto al niño como a los padres/tutores y siempre que sea posible se recopilará la información que los profesores puedan aportar. En dicha entrevista se valorará la presencia de impulsividad, inatención e hiperactividad. «Los diferentes cuestionarios validados para el diagnóstico de TDAH nos pueden servir como apoyo para llegar a identificar síntomas, pero nunca en exclusiva para realizar el diagnostico. Es importante diferenciar el TDAH de otras enfermedades, médicas y psiquiátricas, así como tener presente que puede cursar con otros trastornos asociados», explica la Dra. Helena Díaz, nuestra jefa de la Unidad de Salud Mental.

TDAH

Síntomas

Hay que tener en cuenta que la curiosidad por explorar el mundo exterior es un signo de salud en un niño. No cualquier niño que incomoda a los mayores porque no para de moverse, que no se ajusta a las exigencias de nuestra época o que no está motivado por estudiar padece o padecerá un TDAH. A menudo, algunos niños inmaduros pueden mostrarse inquietos y poco atentos. Nuestra especialista apunta a que el diagnóstico de TDAH se ha incrementado vertiginosamente en los últimos años y «habrá que preguntarse si el asfixiante ritmo de vida de nuestra sociedad, está haciendo que se diagnostique a niños sanos de niños enfermos».

Existe un amplio abanico de manifestaciones clínicas en el TDAH. La Dra. Helena Díaz detalla que se pueden ver niños con afectación clínica y funcional leve, con síntomas de poca intensidad y escasa repercusión en el día a día, y niños con intensa afectación clínica y una vida marcada por los obstáculos que de manera continua y en todas las áreas del desarrollo de niño se dejan notar. En otra línea, «podemos diferenciar casos con mayor predominio de síntomas de Inatención, otros con síntomas de Hiperactividad y otros con mayor dominio de la impulsividad».

Tratamientos

Una vez diagnosticado, el tratamiento es individualizado, ya que cada niño es un mundo. Se recomienda involucrar todas las áreas afectadas en el mundo del paciente: social, familiar y escolar. Así, se realiza intervención psicoterapéutica y psicoeducativa con el paciente y sus padres, para dotarles de estrategias de manejo de las dificultades. A nivel académico se deben considerar los apoyos necesarios para favorecer el proceso de aprendizaje, facilitando la adaptación escolar y formativa. En casos indicados, será positivo asociar tratamiento farmacológico a las intervenciones psicológicas y pedagógicas.

El TDAH es un trastorno del desarrollo, de buen pronóstico si se realiza un tratamiento adecuado. Tomando datos de los diferentes estudios, se calcula que un tercio de los pacientes diagnosticados en la infancia de TDAH presentan una persistencia de los síntomas en la edad adulta. En la práctica clínica, lo que observa nuestra jefa de la Unidad de Salud Mental es que en la vida adulta, la mayoría de los pacientes presentan un funcionamiento totalmente normal debido a la ganancia de estrategias de manejo para desenvolverse en el día a día.

 

Contenido validado por la Dra. Helena Díaz, Jefa de Servicio de Salud Mental



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