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Cerco al infarto de miocardio, cómo identificarlo y cómo prevenirlo

El infarto de miocardio puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, pero generalmente aparece dolor intenso en el centro del pecho, como una presión intensa que no se alivia cambiando de posturas. Además, pueden producirse molestias en los hombros y brazos, sobre todo en el izquierdo, cuello, escápulas y mandíbula, que se acompañan de malestar general, palidez, sudor frío y, en ocasiones, náuseas y vómitos.

Si aparece todo esto, hay que ponerse en contacto de inmediato con los servicios de emergencias llamando al 112, «porque el traslado en el coche particular puede conllevar riesgos. En ningún momento debemos abandonar a la persona que se encuentra mal. Debemos tumbarle y vigilarle para aliviar sus síntomas hasta la llegada de las asistencias especializadas. En caso de vómitos colocarle de medio lado», explica nuestro jefe del Servicio de Cardiología, el Dr. Eduardo Alegría, quien recomienda conocer cómo actuar ante una parada cardiaca y ser capaz de realizar masaje cardiaco: comprimir el tórax 100-120 veces/minuto en caso de que la persona deje de responder a estímulos.

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Prevención

Para intentar evitar que se de esta situación hay que incidir en las medidas de prevención. Nuestro especialista insisten en que nos encontramos ante una pandemia de sedentarismo que lleva asociada un aumento exponencial de los casos de obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión arterial.

Por ello, «es de vital importancia que nos concienciemos nosotros, nuestros hijos y familiares de la importancia de realizar actividad física moderada de forma regular (unos 5 días por semana) que sirva además de disfrute (caminar, marcha nórdica, baile, bicicleta, natación, carrera continua, golf, etc.) y promoción de la salud para las personas cercanas. Junto al ejercicio físico, debemos reducir la ingesta calórica para adecuarla a nuestras necesidades metabólicas y así conseguir mantener un peso adecuado. La dieta recomendable debe ser rica en fruta, verdura, legumbres, aceite de oliva virgen, frutos secos (nueces), y evitar productos precocinados y reduciendo la ingesta de grasas de origen animal. Asimismo, el consumo de alcohol debe ser bajo (1-2 copitas de vino/día) limitando las bebidas destiladas a momentos muy puntuales», especifica el Dr. Eduardo Alegría.

El peso también importa. De hecho, las organizaciones internacionales recomiendan mantener un índice de masa corporal (IMC) por debajo de 25 y un perímetro abdominal (medida de la circunferencia a la altura del ombligo) por debajo de 102 cm en varones y 88 cm en mujeres. También como recomendación crucial, hay que abandonar de forma completa el tabaco en todas sus formas (incluyendo cigarrillo electrónico), por sus conocidos efectos nocivos sobre el sistema cardiovascular y capacidad de provocar diversos cánceres (pulmón, lengua y laringe, vejiga, etc.).

Secuelas

Hay que tener en cuenta que la secuela más importante tras un infarto es la reducción de la capacidad de bombeo del corazón, que se produce por la pérdida de músculo cardiaco que se sustituye por tejido cicatricial. Esta secuela se detecta mediante un ecocardiograma (ecografía del corazón), técnica con la que se puede visualizar el interior del corazón de forma sencilla e inocua, obteniendo imágenes de su capacidad de contracción. En las personas con infartos de gran tamaño pueden aparecer síntomas como disnea (falta de aire) o fatigabilidad con el esfuerzo. En algunos casos muy concretos, el daño sobre el corazón es tan importante que aparecen taquicardias muy graves que requieren implantar un dispositivo eléctrico llamado desfibrilador que se encarga de prevenir la muerte súbita por arritmias letales.

Recuperación

Y es que la recuperación del infarto comienza en la misma habitación del hospital, cuando se pide a los pacientes que se levante inicialmente al sofá y, en 24-48 horas si no han tenido complicaciones, comiencen a dar paseos por la habitación y por la planta, para evaluar la recuperación.

Tras el alta, se le facilitan unos consejos precisos sobre cómo iniciar sus actividades habituales, su incorporación al trabajo y la importancia de realizar un programa de ejercicio físico estructurado y supervisado, que recibe el nombre de Rehabilitación Cardiaca. Este programa, que se realiza en el Hospital de Torrejón desde el año 2013, ha demostrado mejorar la expectativa y la calidad de vida de las personas que han sufrido un infarto. «Disponemos de un gimnasio con 7 puestos de entrenamiento monitorizados en los que acuden a recuperar su corazón 14 pacientes durante 2 meses, con la colaboración del Servicio de Rehabilitación y el equipo de fisioterapia», detalla nuestro jefe del Servicio de Cardiología.

Contenido validado por el Dr. Eduardo Alegría, Jefe de Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón



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