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¿Conoces los signos para identificar la menopausia?

La menopausia se define como la etapa en la vida de la mujer, por lo general entre los 45 y 55 años, en la que los ovarios dejan de producir óvulos y se deja de tener la menstruación. Según explica nuestra ginecóloga la Dra. María Luisa Liberal, de la Unidad de Menopausia del hospital, la menopausia es una etapa fisiológica de la vida de una mujer, aunque en ocasiones los síntomas asociados a la menopausia pueden afectar la calidad de vida de la mujer. Incluso antes de dejar de tener menstruaciones, los cambios hormonales pueden dar lugar a algunos de los síntomas de la menopausia.

Síntomas más comunes

  • Sofocos. Todas las mujeres los conocen y los temen. Suelen comenzar como una repentina sensación de calor en la parte superior del pecho y la cara, que luego se disemina por todo el cuerpo. Su duración varía entre los dos y los cuatro minutos. Algunas mujeres sudan durante el sofoco y luego sienten escalofríos y tiemblan cuando finaliza. Por otro lado, también puede aparecer ansiedad o palpitaciones en el corazón durante el sofoco. Los sofocos pueden ocurrir una o dos veces al día o ser mucho más frecuentes llegando a tener una cadencia de una hora. Aparecen antes de que finalicen las menstruaciones y suelen durar entre dos y cuatro años después.
  • Sudoración nocturna. Se denomina así cuando los sofocos ocurren durante el sueño. Según nuestra ginecóloga, los sudores nocturnos pueden causar sudoración profusa, lo que hace que la mujer se despierte de su sueño porque tiene frío o calor. Esto puede ocurrir una o más veces por noche. Despertarse con frecuencia puede hacer que sea difícil conseguir un sueño reparador. De hecho, como resultado de la interrupción del sueño, muchas mujeres desarrollan otros problemas, como fatiga, irritabilidad, dificultad para concentrarse y cambios de humor.Menopausia
  • Trastornos del sueño. Al principio de la menopausia, algunas mujeres comienzan a tener problemas para dormirse o permanecer dormidas, aunque los sudores nocturnos no sean el problema. Esto puede hacer que al no descansar bien por la noche, durante el día aparezca el cansancio y la irritabilidad.
  • Sequedad vaginal. A medida que disminuyen los niveles de estrógenos en sangre antes y durante la menopausia, los tejidos de la vagina y la uretra (el conducto que va desde la vejiga hasta el exterior del cuerpo) se hacen más finos y secos. Esto da lugar a la aparición de sequedad o irritación vaginal, lo que hace que aparezca el dolor o sequedad con el coito. A esto hay que sumar que aparezcan más infecciones de orina por disminución de la capa de protección de la uretra frente a los gérmenes, que así ascienden más fácilmente hacia la vejiga.
  • Depresión. Durante la transición a la menopausia, algunas mujeres desarrollan algunas alteraciones en el estado de ánimo, como tristeza, dificultad para concentrarse, sensación de desinterés en las actividades normales, dormir demasiado o tener problemas para quedarse dormidos. Las mujeres con antecedentes de depresión puede sentirse más lábiles durante esta etapa.
Contenido validado por la Dra. María Luisa Liberal, ginecóloga del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón

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