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La planificación para el Žéxito en el deporte

La planificación para la práctica del deporte, con unos objetivos realistas adaptados al estado físico y un comienzo gradual y progresivo; una revisión médica previa en caso de padecer problemas de salud, como diabetes, hipertensión, tabaquismo…; elegir una actividad que aporte diversión, contacto social y que inicialmente no sea extenuante son claves para garantizar el éxito de propósito, según explica el Dr. Luis Alfonso Sanz Ferrando, nuestro jefe de Servicio de Traumatología.

Por eso, es primordial dedicar tiempo suficiente a calentar antes del ejercicio y estirar después, elegir una actividad que se pueda continuar o adaptar a las condiciones climáticas evitando la concentración de la actividad física en determinadas épocas del año.

Otro punto en el que nuestro traumatólogo hace hincapié es en elegir adecuadamente le material apropiado, con especial atención al calzado específico para la actividad y considerar las ayudas electrónicas, como el monitor de frecuencia cardiaca, contador de calorías, medidor de distancia y tiempo…

Beneficios

El mayor beneficio del ejercicio se obtiene con las actividades que incluyen los tres elementos básicos del acondicionamiento físico: trabajo aeróbico, ejercicios de flexibilidad y tonificación/fuerza. Por eso, es recomendable planificar la actividad semanal, con días de descanso y recuperación entre medias. Tres sesiones semanales es un buen equilibrio.

No hay que olvidar que la actividad física es buena a todas las edades, puesto que ayuda a la coordinación, la habilidad, la prevención de riesgos cardiovasculares, la salud psicológica y promueve la confianza y la independencia, aunque cada etapa tiene condicionantes específicos. Así, en los niños hay que tener en cuenta que durante el crecimiento, el sistema musculoesquelético es más vulnerable a las lesiones y al sobreesfuerzo por lo que es necesario el consejo deportivo y médico para evitar lesiones que se perpetúen en la edad adulta.

Prevención de lesiones

En las personas mayores con problemas físicos hay que adaptar la actividad para evitar empeoramiento, mientras se mantienen los beneficios, como la prevención de la osteoporosis o la hipertensión. «Tendemos a pensar que el reposo siempre es bueno para las dolencias osteoarticulares, cuando es lo contrario. Es muy raro que pacientes a efectos de dolor lumbar u osteoartritis no se beneficien de programas de tonificación muscular y flexibilidad», asegura el Dr. Luis Alfonso Sanz Ferrando.

En términos generales, el desgaste articular (osteoporosis) depende de varios factores entre los que se encuentra la predisposición genética, los hábitos de uso y las lesiones traumáticas sufridas. Por lo general, dañan más las articulaciones las actividades que implican traumatismos significativos de repetición, como son por ejemplo las rodillas en el futbol, los hombros en el balonmano, los tobillos en gimnasia…, aunque el riesgo está relacionado más con la severidad y repetición de las mismas que con la longevidad de la práctica deportiva en sí.

Esguinces, la lesión más frecuente

En cuanto a las lesiones más frecuentes, nuestro especialista indica que estadísticamente son las relacionadas con los deportes más practicados: los esguinces y torceduras de tobillo, las lesiones de ligamentos de la rodilla (cruzados y colaterales), las luxaciones de hombro y las fracturas de tobillo, muñeca y clavícula se encuentran entre las más significativas.

La disciplina deportiva tienen lógicamente mucho que ver con el tipo de lesión. Dentro de los deportes de nieve, el esquí alpino está relacionado con lesiones de miembros inferiores y el snowboard con las de extremidades superiores. Los deportes de bicicleta se relacionan con lesiones traumáticas de extremidades superiores y con lesiones por sobreuso de las inferiores.

 

 

Contenido validado por el Dr. Luis Sanz, Jefe de Servicio de Traumatología del Hospital Universitario de Torrejón

 



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